This Week’s Gospel Readings: John 7:37 – 9:41 We experience the difficulty of believing continually. Yeshua speaks in exalted terms about his hidden identity. Yet the key word is hidden. Water and light, some of the images used here, are things all too common. We lose the ability to be amazed by them. Their wonder…

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Yeshua said, “Before Abraham existed, I am!” This statement does not come out of the blue. There has been a dialogue between Yeshua and his high-level critics in Jerusalem. To best understand how and why Yeshua can say something so far-fetched, so seemingly deranged, we should trace the conversation: John 8:58 and what led to…

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This Week’s Torah Portions (Sh’lach): Numbers 13:1 – 15:41 We don’t know what we want, as the saga of Numbers shows us clearly. Upon hearing that Canaan might be difficult to conquer, the people speak out in fear and mistrust of God. But then, when told they will not be allowed to enter the land,…

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This Week’s Gospel Readings: John 6:1 – 7:36 Yeshua is out among the people saying mysterious things. He evokes Moses, manna, exodus, and scandalously implies that his work is greater. He speaks of returning to the place from which he came, a place his enemies won’t be able to find him. He alludes to a…

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This Week’s Torah Portions (Beha’alotcha): Numbers 8:1 – 12:16 Israel finally leaves Sinai and Moses’ problems multiply. Numbers is a story about a beaten-down people, a people who find the smallest faith in God difficult. Few nations tell stories like these about themselves. As origin stories they are less than heroic. No doubt, in later…

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This Week’s Gospel Readings: John 3:31 – 5:47 The signs are there. Yeshua does and says things that could not possibly be understood before his glory was revealed. The Beloved Disciple, author of this Fourth Gospel, remembered all the seemingly crazy sayings. I receive directly from heaven, Yeshua said. Studying the Torah cannot save you.…

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God accepts weak faith. See below, the seemingly trivial story of a Gentile official who came to Yeshua looking for a miracle. It is the second of seven signs in the Fourth Gospel. The first sign, water to wine, was a major revelation of Yeshua’s veiled identity (more than a man, more than a prophet,…

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This Week’s Torah Portions (Nasso): Numbers 4:21 – 7:89 Rabbi Jonathan Sacks has said that one thing tying this section of Numbers together is the theme of shalom (peace). It is the last word of the priestly blessing in Numbers 6:26. It is the logic behind the “Sotah” passage (the case where a man suspects…

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This Week’s Gospel Readings: John 1:29-3:30 Who is Yeshua? This section of the Fourth Gospel begins to reveal mysterious answers. He is the one who preexisted and came down among us. He lets slip at a wedding in Cana some of his glory, his divine glory, in commanding nature. He reveals grace in addition to…

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This Week’s Torah Portions (Bamidbar): Numbers 1:1 – 4:20 The book of Numbers begins in a way many readers find to be, well, boring. To the ancients, this sort of material was not boring at all. The configuration of tribes, the tabernacle with the divine presence in the middle, all of this was a picture…

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This Week’s Gospel Readings: Luke 22:1 – 24:53 and John 1:1-28 We finish Luke, seeing Yeshua exalted after the resurrection, and begin John, catching a transcendent view into the mystery of the Word, the Logos, the Memra. Click here to see more about “The Weekly Gospel.” A Few Highlights from the Greek and the Commentary…

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This Week’s Torah Portions (Behar-Bechukotai): Leviticus 25:1 – 27:34 Leviticus ends with a breathtaking promise of beauty, a gruesome warning of failure, and a brief appendix that seems out of place. People are more aware that Deuteronomy ends with covenant blessings and curses, and for some reason the blessings and curses of Leviticus are less…

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This Week’s Gospel Readings: Luke 16:19 – 21:38 We are nearing the end of the Gospel of Luke. We’re moving fast because the Torah reading schedule has been doubled (and we read the Gospels on pace with Torah). Luke’s portrait of Yeshua is beginning to take a turn, from healer/teacher to suffering Messiah and then…

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Yeshua, as Luke depicts him, sometimes demands more than people are willing to give and sometimes surprises us with a willingness to accept and affirm graciously. He is demanding yet forgiving. And Luke depicts this artfully in chapters 18 and 19, as one of the sections of his gospel comes to a close (19:10 is…

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I’m flying home today, just in time for Passover. It has been a fantastic weekend with a wonderful group of people at Louisiana Bible College. They are a small school associated with The Gathering, a community I can describe as “quite different” (in a good way). They offer a wide variety of services to the…

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The president of the Board of Commissioners here in St. Bernard Parish, just outside of New Orleans, drove me around yesterday, telling me all about Katrina in 2005 and how it affected this area. We had a lovely dinner and continued talking about material from the class and some things in life he and I…

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Thanks to a referral from Skip Moen, I’m enjoying leading a small class of students at Louisiana Bible College through a weekend intensive on “The Historical Jesus.” What do we mean by “the historical Jesus”? Really there are many different “Jesuses.” There are literary Jesuses, cinematic Jesuses, theological Jesuses, some people talk about “the Biblical…

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Teaching online Hebrew students is one of the joys of my life. Students are in many cases more than just clients. They are friends. After going through a Hebrew grammar textbook together — which usually takes six months — we translate the book of Ruth and then many continue studying as we work through whatever…

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People call this collection of writings by various names: Old Testament, Tanakh, Hebrew Bible. Some names bring with them a sort of prejudice against these writings. If a testament is old, does that mean it is out of touch, irrelevant? Other names can be confusing. Hebrew Bible, the term I prefer, creates anxiety: will I…

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So, you want to celebrate Passover in a traditional way. You pick up a Haggadah, a Passover manual, and you think it will be simple. Passover is a ritual meal with a few symbolic foods and the story from Exodus, right? But as you read the Haggadah it seems anything but. What’s going on? It…

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A student — who is not Jewish and who has never learned a melody for reciting Passover blessings — asked me to record a melody that I use. I like a happy melody for blessings. If you are familiar with the commonly known piece of music used for Jewish berachot (blessings), this is not that.…

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Passover is approaching. Maybe you’ve experience this before: you know the holiday is coming, you think you should do something to learn more about it, but the whole thing passes by in a flash and you have yet another year where you don’t take the time to improve your understanding and connect with God deeply…

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Some readers wonder if I am inconsistent in what I am saying about Paul (in the “Rereading Paul” series). On the one hand, I have said that Romans 2:6-11 is not what Paul believes. He does not believe in judgment by desert (“you get what you deserve”). Romans 2:6-11 says God will reward goodness with…

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It’s Jewish book of the month time (we call it J-BOM)! For those of you who have been enjoying the February selection, Chaim Potok’s The Chosen, thank you for participating. The March J-BOM is the Jonathan Sacks Haggada by Koren publishing. Get it from Koren here or from amazon here. My choice for March is…

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Two voices speak in Romans 1-4, not just Paul’s. You might recognize in these chapters a kind of Greek writing style known as “diatribe.” This means something different in the context of Greek literature than in modern usage, where a diatribe is a harangue against a person or idea. A Greek-style diatribe is something else,…

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Chaim Potok wrote a short history of the Jews called Wanderings. That depth of knowledge must be why he is able to make history shine in The Chosen. He reveals an unfamiliar world, helping us understand the backstory that illuminates the lives of Reuven Malter and Danny Saunders. We can see it. We can understand…

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“The sidewalks of Williamsburg were cracked squares of cement, the streets paved with asphalt that softened in the stifling summers and broke apart into potholes in the bitter winters.” With descriptive powers of a superb poet, Chaim Potok reveals a whole world to us, a microcosm of Jewish life in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn.…

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Though it’s been years since I read Chaim Potok’s The Chosen, the theme I remember it most for is freedom, specifically freedom of the mind. Reuven’s father already has been practicing intellectual freedom and his Modern Orthodox stance on Judaism looks frighteningly like abandonment of the faith to some people. Danny is a person trapped…

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In “Rereading Paul #2” I awakened some interest (as well as disagreement) in the idea that Romans 1-4 is not Paul’s voice. Paul argues here with an unseen opponent, someone he and his audience are all too familiar with. I don’t mean that Paul personally knows this Jewish teacher with whom he is carrying on…

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Paul speaks with two voices it seems in Romans. More correctly, there is a non-Pauline voice in the first four chapters of Paul’s letter to the Romans. This voice mixes with Paul’s in ways difficult for the reader to detect. That’s because “epistles” (letters written with formal style and often meant to be read publicly)…

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In this “Rereading Paul” series, I aim to persuade you of the insights introduced to the world by Douglas Campbell in his massive volume The Deliverance of God. I add my own twist, of course. I will focus persuading you to abandon the “justification theory” reading of Paul and urge you rather to see him…

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Shalom, readers, I am thinking about starting a blog series which will probably be a long one — a lot of posts, but the posts themselves will be short. It would probably run for several months and may accumulate thirty or forty posts (maybe more). The series would be “Rereading Paul.” My focus would be…

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When you think about walking around in the Judean desert, on a typical tour, its June or July and the temperature in the shade is 110 Fahrenheit. Your guide will tell you, “Keep sipping water constantly; the dry heat dehydrates you.” Sigh. It’s so nice to contemplate going on an Israel Tour in December instead…

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We have peace with God, says Paul, and then moves to a further thought in vs. 2. We have already — past tense — been granted access into something. God has initiated for us a new condition of being, a different law of life than we are used to, a state of grace which might…

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The mistranslation of Romans 5:1 is a tragedy. The majority of Bible readers will never know this verse is about Messiah’s faithfulness. None of the standard English versions render the key word as faithfulness. All of them choose “by faith” instead of “by faithfulness.” The “by faith” reading encourages us to see ourselves as the…

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Douglas Campbell taught me something profound about the book of Romans. The heart of Romans is chapters 5-8, not the usually emphasized chapters 1-4. Ever since the day I discovered this great fact from Campbell’s The Deliverance of God I have read Romans 5 over and over again. I will present to you in multiple…

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Our minds yearn for expansion, discovery, engagement. Too often we fill them with drivel. The Hebrew Nerd offers you some reflections on phrases of Torah to widen your intellectual borders and fill your soul horizon. Based on the “Today’s Hebrew” section of the Daily Portion emails (which you can subscribe to for free by clicking…

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So, let’s read a good Jewish book together each month for seven months. I am resurrecting something from the past, J-BOM, the “Jewish Book of the Month.” Way back in March 2010 it was a thing on my old blog site. You can read that post here: https://derek4messiah.wordpress.com/2010/02/12/get-ready-j-bom-is-coming/ Back then a number of Messianic Jewish…

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At that time the Feast of Dedication took place at Jerusalem. It was winter, and Yeshua was walking in the temple, in the colonnade of Solomon. –John 10:22-23 Hanukkah means “dedication.” The name comes from the story, in which the Maccabees rededicated the Temple, purifying it after the Syrians and the Jewish priests who were…

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“This [thing from the Bible] is that [something from modern headlines].” The end times are here, they tell us. And they’ve been telling us that at least since the Manichaeans in the third and fourth centuries. In case you thought it was something rather new, a phenomenon of modern times, calling current events fulfillments of…

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It can’t mean what it says. It must be a symbol, a code, with a secret spiritual message. In fact, the Bible must be filled with code language. Allegory and allegorical interpretation is where “the prima facie meaning must normally be pushed aside, even counted as offensive, to make room for the intended spiritual meaning…

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The purpose of a parable, which is a sermon delivered in person in its original setting, is to persuade those standing nearby. Who is Yeshua seeking to persuade with this parable? Is he comforting his disciples who are like the first son or is he trying to save the obstinate who are standing nearby to…

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The plain, simple meaning. What it naturally means. Literal, straightforward meaning. A Hebrew word that has come to stand for it is p’shat (puh-SHOT), “to remove, strip off, flatten” (it also has a second meaning, “to advance, dash ahead”). Richard Longenecker says in Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period that it came to mean “to…

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“The kingdom of heaven is like,” said Yeshua. More than once. He opened some saying with the formula, “it may be compared to.” These are classic modes for introducing a story parable. “They are like children sitting in the marketplaces and calling to their playmates,” was Yeshua’s way of commenting on a social issue in…

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Every now and then you get your paradigm blown about some aspect of biblical history or theology. That happened to me at the recent SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) meeting in a session put on by the Historical Jesus Section, with Amy-Jill Levine presiding. Specifically it was R. Steven Notley’s paper in the session whose…

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SBL (Society of Biblical Literature, #SBLAAR2016) has been a reawakening for me, an experience of recapturing something that has been beautiful in my life. Since leaving my former occupation as a rabbi a year and half ago, I’ve not stopped studying the Bible, wrestling with texts and ideas, trying to comprehend what God has spoken…

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SBL is the Society of Biblical Literature, and every year there is a joint conference with AAR, the American Academy of Religion. It’s 10,000 plus Bible scholars and theologians all in one place. There are something like a hundred parallel tracks for just about any topic you can imagine and some you’d never imagine. I…

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We’ve had a great deal of discussion here on Messianic Jewish Musings and also on my Facebook profile about my recent post: “Jesus and Mosaic Authorship of Torah”. Why not join the dialogue about Yeshua? Two points in particular have been raised, but I think even more could be. Here are two questions I invite…

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Yeshua (Jesus) reportedly said things like, “Moses wrote about me” (John 5:46) and “have you not read in the book of Moses?” (Mark 12:26). Many Christians argue that if Yeshua believed in Mosaic authorship of the entire Pentateuch (Torah, Five Books of Moses), we must believe it as well. The argument for Mosaic authorship might…

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Jesus (Yeshua) famously said: “the gate is wide and the way is easy that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many” (Matt 7:13). The common reading of Yeshua’s narrow road saying is that he was speaking of eternal destinies, giving us truths about the afterlife and the extent of salvation. According…

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What’s so great about Abraham? How does his name and example inspire or motivate a person living now? What does the concept of God’s friendship with Abraham mean for Jews? For Christians? When God calls out one person among the mass of humanity as his friend, it is personal and scandalous. When God chooses a…

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Is prophecy a real thing? Is the Hebrew Bible (“Old Testament”) inspired by God? Are its words sacred, conveying somehow true things about God’s nature and his desires? Yes, I certainly think so. A commenter challenged me regarding my recent article, “Believing in Torah While Accepting Biblical Criticism.” His words are sharp and to the…

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I believe in two things at the same time that seem irreconcilable to many people of faith. On the one hand, I believe in Torah, the very idea of Torah. I believe that God moved prophets and priests and sages to speak and write Torah. I also believe God appointed scribes to preserve and pass…

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The pages of the Bible are like those scenes in war movies of darkened fields wrecked by fighting and death. The mortal weaknesses of the Bible’s authors is evident. Its pages are filled with institutions which contradict its higher values: slavery, polygamy, patriarchalism, vengeance, and even genocide. Like bloodied soil, the beauty of the letters…

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Messiah is everything. In today’s DAILY PORTION email, I address the long debated issue of Matthew seemingly misinterpreting Isaiah 7:14. Those who have become used to ancient ways of interpreting texts, such as the midrashes of the Jewish sages, are not surprised by what Matthew has done. It’s a Jewish thing. (Note: a midrash is…

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One of the earliest expressions the first followers of Yeshua used was marana tha (maranatha), which in Aramaic means, “Our Lord, come.” What they likely meant was, “Lord, Yeshua, be present with us in our gathering.” This is like Yeshua’s saying, “wherever two or three are assembled in my name, I am there with them”…

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The following is an excerpt from an upcoming book, Living Yeshua, chapter 4,”Yeshua as Lord.” What does it mean when people say, “Jesus is Lord?” Here is something worth noting: when Paul in his letters refers to “the Lord,” he generally means Yeshua, not the Father. I’d be interested in seeing some of my detail…

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I get that not everyone wants to study Hebrew. I mean, an alphabet to learn. Most people quail even at the thought of getting started. Twenty-two little letters and ten vowels can scare the שְׁאוֹל [Sheol] out of you. I know. My Story, Learning Hebrew My own story about learning Hebrew goes back to when…

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So many things people think are part of Christian belief, including hell, do not exactly come from the Bible. There is an idea that some of the angels rebelled against God, led by their captain whose name is Satan. It’s all spelled out in Milton’s Paradise Lost. But in reality, this war in heaven saga…

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The general thesis of this series is that Paul’s statements about faith and Messiah do not mean “faith in Messiah” but rather “the faithfulness of Messiah.” They do not refer to something we must have to please God (the ability to believe) but something God does to show us we can confidently hope in him…

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The year 5777 has arrived! If you haven’t already, this is a good time to be amazed by the number and its significance. On October 23, the daily readings for the new Torah year will begin. And in keeping with the newness and excitement a new year brings, my daily email with commentary on the…

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Calvinism says: If you don’t believe in God and Messiah, then probably — unless you believe before you die — God doesn’t want to save you. Arminianism says: If you don’t believe in God and Messiah, God wants to save you, but he will keep letting you choose exile and darkness. Universalism says: If you…

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Faith and Gospel I googled “what is the gospel” and came up very quickly with some simple lists, steps, and answers. I wanted to see how the requirement of faith is generally brought into a gospel scheme. Here is one that is rather typical: 1) God is holy, 2) we are hopeless sinners, 3) Christ…

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Yesterday was Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, the anniversary of the creation of the world and beginning of ten days of awe. During this period, we reflect on our sins, the people we have hurt, on making amends, and renewing ourselves for another year with God. Instead of throwing stones at one another on…

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I often tell people two things to get them started on this experiment of reading Paul with new eyes. One, read Romans 5-8 daily for a while. Two, read chapter 5, verse 1, the way it was meant to be translated: Therefore, since we have been justified by faithfulness [Messiah’s, not ours], we have peace…

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Maybe you love Paul, thinking he’s a great intellect or inspiring or both. Maybe you hate him, thinking he is what is wrong with Western religion. If you’re Jewish, perhaps you heard he was the guy who declared Jewish customs obsolete. He is used by some Christian thinkers as Paul the anti-Moses. There is a…

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Elijah. Where did he come from? What is the meaning of his life? How has he come to be such a towering figure in Judaism and Christianity? Why is there a place left for him at Passover tables? On TheHebrewNerd.com I am exploring Elijah with some rather thorough commentary, a look at Jewish thoughts on…

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Ultimately here I will point to universalism, the belief that in the end God’s love and light reconcile all things through Messiah. Many are not willing to take that radical of a step into believing in the effectiveness of God’s love. There are many alternatives besides universalism to a theology of an angry God. Imagine…

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My commentary on a reading from Acts today shows us something of the theology of the early believers. Paul’s teaching in Acts shows what Torah has to do with Messiah. Torah is the promise and anticipation. Yeshua is the new revelation that, we can see in retrospect, does all that Torah promised and more. I…

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Eternal Conscious Torment. It’s an emotional issue. I recently experienced a flash flood of comments on Facebook, mostly positive and some negative, when I said: I used to feel pressure not to go this direction. I was clergy. Many of my constituents were sold on what seems to be the crux of evangelicalism: salvation is…

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A little more than a year ago I entered a new career. My life had fallen apart. Though there were plenty of underlying causes, the fault was primarily my own. So my main blog has been dormant. I’ve been doing some blogging at TheHebrewNerd.com and TheIsaiahNerd.Wordpress.com. Well, fall is here. More than a year has…

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If you look for me in coming months, you’ll find me on my new blog focusing on both Hebrew learning and English-based instruction in Hebrew concepts and words. I spend most of my time now either teaching online students to study words like tikvah and hesed in the Hebrew Bible, translating Ruth or Psalms, or…

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Hesed. Lovingkindness. An active quality of love practiced with devotion and demonstrated by deeds of kindness rather than mere words. Ruth 1:8, But Naomi said to her two daughters-in-law, “Turn back, each of you to the house of her mother. May Adonai make hesed with you as you made with the dead [husbands] and with…

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Most of the Torah is either narrative or legal writing, the stories of early Israel or the commandments of God. But there is also poetry in the Torah. And since poetry is the least common form to be found in these five books, the poetic verses are like stars shining out in the night. The…

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If you ever find yourself on a new path in life, I am guessing you’ll find, as I have, a few things that are true. Some things are lost and others gained. Some we pray about, that they will come back to us. Others we let go of and move on. The scenery changes. But…

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See Part 1 here. We’ll begin by looking closer at one of Yeshua’s most important sayings and then listing some ways to be a better reader of his words. THE SOWER PARABLE In explaining the Sower Parable (Mark 4:3-9; Matthew 13:3-9; Luke 8:5-8) N.T. Wright warns us not to reduce Yeshua’s sayings to vague, timeless…

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It’s not easy to understand the sayings of Yeshua. He was a figure of his time, a teacher in an Israelite mode, one versed in the Hebrew Bible and best understood by Jewish hearers. He did not intend to be clear really. He said to his disciples, “To you the secret of the Kingdom of…

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A d’rash (sermon) on Parashat Balak (Numbers 22:2-25:9), the story of Balaam. What is more real? The physical or the spiritual? We are tempted by our daily experience to say that the physical is more real. We can understand it. We can write laws of physics about it. We feel, see, hear, taste, and smell…

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Is the written Torah a set of ideal laws or a constitution for a people? Is it a collection of timeless principles or time-bound laws for an actual people? Is it social legislation or a set of ethical ideals? Many people want Torah to be something it is not. It seems as if Torah should…

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Messianic Judaism is a Judaism committed to Yeshua. It is a Judaism because its core purpose is to provide a home for Jewish followers of Yeshua where we may live out our covenantal relationship with God based on the Abrahamic promise, the teaching from Sinai, and the revelation of God which is in Messiah Yeshua.…

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Moses loved God. He cared about his people. He was a human being who discovered a beautiful truth about the world, that it is governed by a king, the very same king who had spoken to Abraham. A lot of us can identify with Moses in that way. Our own life story includes discovering the…

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As many of you know, I just returned from a trip to Israel. While there I thought many times about how the holiness of the place is hidden. What is Jerusalem but noisy streets, a cacophony of offensive noises, a melting pot of Jews of all varieties along with Muslims and Christians of varying kinds,…

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I am still leading a tour in Israel as I post this. This is an old article that was requested by a friend who often shares it with others. I deleted my old blog in late January 2015 and started over again. While some of my old material can still be found out there on…

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I am in Israel right now, leading a small tour group. This is a highly educated little group, more Jewishly informed than most groups I have brought here in the past. They are keeping me on my toes as we discuss the early believers and the earliest Messianic Judaism while touring. Obviously my blog output…

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Torah is not complete redemption. When you pray from the Siddur (Jewish prayer book) or read the teachings of the early rabbis you realize immediately that Torah does not contain the last word on redemption. You could say that everything is contained in Torah in a sense, so, for example, Torah intimates a future redemption…

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“Haven’t you read what God said to you?” Yeshua asks his critics (Matt 22:31). This question sums up nicely his view of the written Torah. He assumes its divine source and authority. In another place he asks “haven’t you read in the book of Moshe” the story of the burning bush (Mark 12:26). He does…

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The Torah has a lot to say about coming near to God at the Temple and bringing offerings and gifts, including animals for slaughter. A curious question to ask is whether Yeshua ever offered sacrifices in the Temple? It’s a curious question because the Gospels never depict him doing so. Our off-the-cuff answer to the…

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Yeshua’s words are like a current of living wind in the deadness of the desert. He spoke with authority, not just interpreting Torah like other teachers, but even adding to it. He increased its moral vision and pressed the ideal of righteousness beyond the literal reading. Therefore he made a statement clarifying what he was…

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Torah is one word with many meanings. Depending on the person using it, they may be referring to the first five books of the Bible, also called the Pentateuch. Or they may mean a leather scroll kept in an Ark in a synagogue on which is written the first five books of the Bible (a…

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The following excerpt is from the beginning of a chapter in my upcoming discipleship guide for Messianic Judaism. I include it here as a prelude to a few discussion questions. I hope you, readers, will join in the discussion. This afternoon and evening I will be replying to comments. Ask any person what they think…

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This is our song. It will be or father-daughter dance tonight. Yes, I know it’s unusual to have a wedding just before Shabbat starts, but she wanted the Friday night meal to be her reception dinner. And we’ll have more guests for Shabbat tonight than we’ve ever had before! So, I’m just marking this special…

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This morning someone looking for an article I wrote in 2013 requested this, so I am posting it. I wrote “Paul Was Too Jewish for the Synagogue” after an unexpected adventure at SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) in November 2013. My young friend, David Matthews, and I were there catching all the papers we could…

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A board member of Jews for Judaism contacted me a few weeks ago via my blog. He didn’t mention, of course, who he was or why he contacted me. He made it seem like he was Mr. General-Public with a question. He said his understanding of Christianity and Judaism is that they are distinct belief…

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The following is the conclusion of chapter 10 of my upcoming book, a Messianic Jewish guide for disciples. In chapter 10 I deal with the problem of our belief, which can make us outcasts in the Jewish community, that Messiah is divine. I explain what our belief means, what views are inadequate, why this view…

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Rashi says about the final verse in our Torah portion: Here we apply the principle, when two verses contradict, a third comes along and resolves it. The first verse he has in mind is Leviticus 1:1, “Hashem called to Moses and spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting.” It seems here that the voice…

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